Transactions Overview

A Transaction is the only way to modify the XRP Ledger. Transactions are only valid if signed, submitted, and accepted into a validated ledger version following the consensus process. Some ledger rules also generate pseudo-transactions, which aren't signed or submitted, but still must be accepted by consensus. Transactions that fail are also included in ledgers because they modify balances of XRP to pay for the anti-spam transaction cost.

Authorizing Transactions

In the decentralized XRP Ledger, a digital signature proves that a transaction is authorized to do a specific set of actions. Only signed transactions can be submitted to the network and included in a validated ledger. A signed transaction is immutable: its contents cannot change, and the signature is not valid for any other transaction.

A transaction can be authorized by any of the following types of signatures:

  • A single signature from the master secret key that is mathematically associated with the sending address. You can disable or enable the master key using an AccountSet transaction.
  • A single signature that matches a regular key associated with the address. You can add, remove, or replace a regular key using a SetRegularKey transaction.
  • A multi-signature that matches a list of signers owned by the address. You can add, remove, or replace a list of signers using a SignerListSet transaction.

Any signature type can authorize any type of transaction, with the following exceptions:

Signing and Submitting Transactions

Sending a transaction to the XRP Ledger involves several steps:

  1. Create an unsigned transaction in JSON format.
  2. Use one or more signatures to authorize the transaction.
  3. Submit a transaction to a rippled server. If the transaction is properly formed, the server provisionally applies the transaction to its current version of the ledger and relays the transaction to other members of the peer-to-peer network.
  4. The consensus process determines which provisional transactions get included in the next validated ledger.
  5. The rippled servers apply those transactions to the previous ledger in a canonical order and share their results.
  6. If enough trusted validators created the exact same ledger, that ledger is declared validated and the results of the transactions in that ledger are immutable.

Unsigned Transaction Format

Here is an example of an unsigned Payment transaction in JSON:

{
  "TransactionType" : "Payment",
  "Account" : "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
  "Destination" : "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
  "Amount" : {
     "currency" : "USD",
     "value" : "1",
     "issuer" : "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn"
  },
  "Fee": "10",
  "Flags": 2147483648,
  "Sequence": 2,
}

The XRP Ledger only relays and executes a transaction if the transaction object has been authorized by the sending address (in the Account) field. For transactions authorized by only a single signature, you have two options:

  1. Convert it to a binary blob and sign it offline. This is preferable, since it means that the account secret used for signing the transaction is never transmitted over any network connection.
  2. Have a rippled server sign the transaction for you. The sign command takes a JSON-format transaction and secret and returns the signed binary transaction format ready for submission. (Transmitting your account secret is dangerous, so you should only do this from within a trusted and encrypted connection, or through a local connection, and only to a server you control.)
    • As a shortcut, you can use the submit command with a tx_json object to sign and submit a transaction all at once. This is only recommended for testing and development purposes.

In either case, signing a transaction generates a binary blob that can be submitted to the network. This means using rippled's submit command. Here is an example of the same transaction, as a signed blob, being submitted with the WebSocket API:

{
  "id": 2,
  "command": "submit",
  "tx_blob" : "120000240000000461D4838D7EA4C6800000000000000000000000000055534400000000004B4E9C06F24296074F7BC48F92A97916C6DC5EA968400000000000000F732103AB40A0490F9B7ED8DF29D246BF2D6269820A0EE7742ACDD457BEA7C7D0931EDB74483046022100982064CDD3F052D22788DB30B52EEA8956A32A51375E72274E417328EBA31E480221008F522C9DB4B0F31E695AA013843958A10DE8F6BA7D6759BEE645F71A7EB240BE81144B4E9C06F24296074F7BC48F92A97916C6DC5EA983143E9D4A2B8AA0780F682D136F7A56D6724EF53754"
}

After a transaction has been submitted, you can check its status using the API, for example using the tx command.

Caution: The success of a transaction is not final unless the transaction appears in a validated ledger with the result code tesSUCCESS. See also: Finality of Results.

Example response from the tx command:

{
  "id": 6,
  "status": "success",
  "type": "response",
  "result": {
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "Amount": {
      "currency": "USD",
      "issuer": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
      "value": "1"
    },
    "Destination": "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
    "Fee": "10",
    "Flags": 2147483648,
    "Sequence": 2,
    "SigningPubKey": "03AB40A0490F9B7ED8DF29D246BF2D6269820A0EE7742ACDD457BEA7C7D0931EDB",
    "TransactionType": "Payment",
    "TxnSignature": "3045022100D64A32A506B86E880480CCB846EFA3F9665C9B11FDCA35D7124F53C486CC1D0402206EC8663308D91C928D1FDA498C3A2F8DD105211B9D90F4ECFD75172BAE733340",
    "date": 455224610,
    "hash": "33EA42FC7A06F062A7B843AF4DC7C0AB00D6644DFDF4C5D354A87C035813D321",
    "inLedger": 7013674,
    "ledger_index": 7013674,
    "meta": {
      "AffectedNodes": [
        {
          "ModifiedNode": {
            "FinalFields": {
              "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
              "Balance": "99999980",
              "Flags": 0,
              "OwnerCount": 0,
              "Sequence": 3
            },
            "LedgerEntryType": "AccountRoot",
            "LedgerIndex": "13F1A95D7AAB7108D5CE7EEAF504B2894B8C674E6D68499076441C4837282BF8",
            "PreviousFields": {
              "Balance": "99999990",
              "Sequence": 2
            },
            "PreviousTxnID": "7BF105CFE4EFE78ADB63FE4E03A851440551FE189FD4B51CAAD9279C9F534F0E",
            "PreviousTxnLgrSeq": 6979192
          }
        },
        {
          "ModifiedNode": {
            "FinalFields": {
              "Balance": {
                "currency": "USD",
                "issuer": "rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrBZbvji",
                "value": "2"
              },
              "Flags": 65536,
              "HighLimit": {
                "currency": "USD",
                "issuer": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
                "value": "0"
              },
              "HighNode": "0000000000000000",
              "LowLimit": {
                "currency": "USD",
                "issuer": "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
                "value": "100"
              },
              "LowNode": "0000000000000000"
            },
            "LedgerEntryType": "RippleState",
            "LedgerIndex": "96D2F43BA7AE7193EC59E5E7DDB26A9D786AB1F7C580E030E7D2FF5233DA01E9",
            "PreviousFields": {
              "Balance": {
                "currency": "USD",
                "issuer": "rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrBZbvji",
                "value": "1"
              }
            },
            "PreviousTxnID": "7BF105CFE4EFE78ADB63FE4E03A851440551FE189FD4B51CAAD9279C9F534F0E",
            "PreviousTxnLgrSeq": 6979192
          }
        }
      ],
      "TransactionIndex": 0,
      "TransactionResult": "tesSUCCESS"
    },
    "validated": true
  }
}

Multi-Signing

Multi-signing in the XRP Ledger is the act of authorizing transactions for the XRP Ledger by using a combination of multiple secret keys. You can have any combination of authorization methods enabled for your address, including multi-signing, a master key, and a regular key. (The only requirement is that at least one method must be enabled.)

The SignerListSet transaction defines which addresses can authorize transactions from your address. You can include up to 8 addresses in a SignerList. You can control how many signatures are needed, in which combinations, by using the quorum and weight values of the SignerList.

To successfully submit a multi-signed transaction, you must do all of the following:

  • The address sending the transaction (specified in the Account field) must own a SignerList in the ledger.
  • The transaction must include the SigningPubKey field as an empty string.
  • The transaction must include a Signers field containing an array of signatures.
  • The signatures present in the Signers array must match signers defined in the SignerList.
  • For the provided signatures, the total weight associated with those signers must be equal or greater than the quorum for the SignerList.
  • The transaction cost (specified in the Fee field) must be at least (N+1) times the normal transaction cost, where N is the number of signatures provided.
  • All fields of the transaction must be defined before collecting signatures. You cannot auto-fill any fields.
  • If presented in binary form, the Signers array must be sorted based on the numeric value of the signer addresses, with the lowest value first. (If submitted as JSON, the submit_multisigned command handles this automatically.)

For more information, see How to Multi-Sign.

Reliable Transaction Submission

Reliably submitting transactions is the process of achieving both of the following:

  • Idempotency - A transaction should be processed once and only once, or not at all.
  • Verifiability - Applications can determine the final result of a transaction.

To have both qualities when submitting a transaction, an application should:

  1. Construct and sign the transaction first, including a LastLedgerSequence parameter that gives the transaction a limited lifespan.
  2. Persist details of the transaction before submitting.
  3. Submit the transaction.
  4. Confirm that the transaction was either included in a validated ledger, or that it has expired due to LastLedgerSequence.
  5. If a transaction fails or expires, you can modify and resubmit it.

Main article: Reliable Transaction Submission

Identifying Transactions

The "hash" is the unique value that identifies a particular transaction. The server provides the hash in the response when you submit the transaction; you can also look up a transaction in an account's transaction history with the account_tx command.

The transaction hash can be used as a "proof of payment" since anyone can look up the transaction by its hash to verify its final status.

Common Fields

Every transaction type has the same set of fundamental fields. Field names are case-sensitive. The common fields for all transactions are:

Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Account String Account The unique address of the account that initiated the transaction.
AccountTxnID String Hash256 (Optional) Hash value identifying another transaction. This transaction is only valid if the sending account's previously-sent transaction matches the provided hash.
Fee String Amount (Required, but auto-fillable) Integer amount of XRP, in drops, to be destroyed as a cost for distributing this transaction to the network.
Flags Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Set of bit-flags for this transaction.
LastLedgerSequence Number UInt32 (Optional, but strongly recommended) Highest ledger sequence number that a transaction can appear in.
Memos Array of Objects Array (Optional) Additional arbitrary information used to identify this transaction.
PreviousTxnID String Hash256 Removed in: rippled 0.28.0 Use AccountTxnID instead.
Sequence Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Required, but auto-fillable) The sequence number, relative to the initiating account, of this transaction. A transaction is only valid if the Sequence number is exactly 1 greater than the last-valided transaction from the same account.
SigningPubKey String PubKey (Automatically added when signing) Hex representation of the public key that corresponds to the private key used to sign this transaction. If an empty string, indicates a multi-signature is present in the Signers field instead.
Signers Array Array (Optional) Array of objects that represent a multi-signature which authorizes this transaction.
SourceTag Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary integer used to identify the reason for this payment, or a sender on whose behalf this transaction is made. Conventionally, a refund should specify the initial payment's SourceTag as the refund payment's DestinationTag.
TransactionType String UInt16 The type of transaction. Valid types include: Payment, OfferCreate, OfferCancel, TrustSet, AccountSet, SetRegularKey, SignerListSet, EscrowCreate, EscrowFinish, EscrowCancel, PaymentChannelCreate, PaymentChannelFund, and PaymentChannelClaim.
TxnSignature String VariableLength (Automatically added when signing) The signature that verifies this transaction as originating from the account it says it is from.

Auto-fillable Fields

Some fields can be automatically filled in before the transaction is signed, either by a rippled server or by the library used for offline signing. Both ripple-lib and rippled can automatically provide the following values:

  • Fee - Automatically fill in the transaction cost based on the network. (Note: rippled's sign command supports limits on how high the filled-in-value is, using the fee_mult_max parameter.)
  • Sequence - Automatically use the next sequence number for the account sending the transaction.

For a production system, we recommend not leaving these fields to be filled by the server. For example, if transaction costs become high due to a temporary spike in network load, you may want to wait for the cost to decrease before sending some transactions, instead of paying the temporarily-high cost.

The Paths field of the Payment transaction type can also be automatically filled in.

Transaction Cost

To protect the XRP Ledger from being disrupted by spam and denial-of-service attacks, each transaction must destroy a small amount of XRP. This transaction cost is designed to increase along with the load on the network, making it very expensive to deliberately or inadvertently overload the network.

The Fee field specifies an amount, in drops of XRP, to destroy as the cost for relaying this transaction. If the transaction is included in a validated ledger (whether or not it achieves its intended purpose), then the amount of XRP specified in the Fee parameter is destroyed forever. You can look up the transaction cost in advance, or let rippled set it automatically when you sign a transaction.

Note: Multi-signed transactions require additional fees to relay to the network.

Canceling or Skipping a Transaction

An important and intentional feature of the XRP Ledger is that a transaction is final as soon as it has been incorporated in a validated ledger.

However, if a transaction has not yet been included in a validated ledger, you can effectively cancel it by rendering it invalid. Typically, this means sending another transaction with the same Sequence value from the same account. If you do not want the replacement transaction to do anything, send an AccountSet transaction with no options.

For example, if you try to submit 3 transactions with sequence numbers 11, 12, and 13, but transaction 11 gets lost somehow or does not have a high enough transaction cost to be propagated to the network, then you can cancel transaction 11 by submitting an AccountSet transaction with no options and sequence number 11. This does nothing (except destroying the transaction cost for the new transaction 11), but it allows transactions 12 and 13 to become valid.

This approach is preferable to renumbering and resubmitting transactions 12 and 13, because it prevents transactions from being effectively duplicated under different sequence numbers.

In this way, an AccountSet transaction with no options is the canonical "no-op" transaction.

LastLedgerSequence

We strongly recommend that you specify the LastLedgerSequence parameter on every transaction. Provide a value of about 3 higher than the most recent ledger index to ensure that your transaction is either validated or rejected within a matter of seconds.

Without the LastLedgerSequence parameter, a transaction can become stuck in an undesirable state where it is neither validated nor rejected for a long time. Specifically, if the load-based transaction cost of the network increases after you send a transaction, your transaction may not get propagated enough to be included in a validated ledger, but you would have to pay the (increased) transaction cost to send another transaction canceling it. Later, if the transaction cost decreases again, the transaction can become included in a future ledger. The LastLedgerSequence places a hard upper limit on how long the transaction can wait to be validated or rejected.

AccountTxnID

The AccountTxnID field lets you chain your transactions together, so that a current transaction is not valid unless the previous one (by Sequence Number) is also valid and matches the transaction you expected.

One situation in which this is useful is if you have a primary system for submitting transactions and a passive backup system. If the passive backup system becomes disconnected from the primary, but the primary is not fully dead, and they both begin operating at the same time, you could potentially have serious problems like some transactions sending twice and others not at all. Chaining your transactions together with AccountTxnID ensures that, even if both systems are active, only one of them can submit valid transactions at a time.

To use AccountTxnID, you must first set the asfAccountTxnID flag, so that the ledger keeps track of the ID for the account's previous transaction.

Memos

The Memos field includes arbitrary messaging data with the transaction. It is presented as an array of objects. Each object has only one field, Memo, which in turn contains another object with one or more of the following fields:

Field Type Internal Type Description
MemoData String VariableLength Arbitrary hex value, conventionally containing the content of the memo.
MemoFormat String VariableLength Hex value representing characters allowed in URLs. Conventionally containing information on how the memo is encoded, for example as a MIME type.
MemoType String VariableLength Hex value representing characters allowed in URLs. Conventionally, a unique relation (according to RFC 5988) that defines the format of this memo.

The MemoType and MemoFormat fields should only consist of the following characters: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789-._~:/?#[]@!$&'()*+,;=%

The Memos field is limited to no more than 1KB in size (when serialized in binary format).

Example of a transaction with a Memos field:

{
    "TransactionType": "Payment",
    "Account": "rMmTCjGFRWPz8S2zAUUoNVSQHxtRQD4eCx",
    "Destination": "r3kmLJN5D28dHuH8vZNUZpMC43pEHpaocV",
    "Memos": [
        {
            "Memo": {
                "MemoType": "687474703a2f2f6578616d706c652e636f6d2f6d656d6f2f67656e65726963",
                "MemoData": "72656e74"
            }
        }
    ],
    "Amount": "1"
}

Signers Field

The Signers field contains a multi-signature, which has signatures from up to 8 key pairs, that together should authorize the transaction. The Signers list is an array of objects, each with one field, Signer. The Signer field has the following nested fields:

Field Type Internal Type Description
Account String AccountID The address associated with this signature, as it appears in the SignerList.
TxnSignature String Blob A signature for this transaction, verifiable using the SigningPubKey.
SigningPubKey String PubKey The public key used to create this signature.

The SigningPubKey must be a key that is associated with the Account address. If the referenced Account is a funded account in the ledger, then the SigningPubKey can be that account's current Regular Key if one is set. It could also be that account's Master Key, unless the lsfDisableMaster flag is enabled. If the referenced Account address is not a funded account in the ledger, then the SigningPubKey must be the master key associated with that address.

Because signature verification is a compute-intensive task, multi-signed transactions cost additional XRP to relay to the network. Each signature included in the multi-signature increases the transaction cost required for the transaction. For example, if the current minimum transaction cost to relay a transaction to the network is 10000 drops, then a multi-signed transaction with 3 entries in the Signers array would need a Fee value of at least 40000 drops to relay.

Flags

The Flags field can contain various options that affect how a transaction should behave. The options are represented as binary values that can be combined with bitwise-or operations to set multiple flags at once.

Most flags only have meaning for a specific transaction type. The same bitwise value may be reused for flags on different transaction types, so it is important to pay attention to the TransactionType field when setting and reading flags.

The only flag that applies globally to all transactions is as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfFullyCanonicalSig 0x80000000 2147483648 Require a fully-canonical signature, to protect a transaction from transaction malleability exploits.

Transaction Types

The type of a transaction (TransactionType field) is the most fundamental information about a transaction. This indicates what type of operation the transaction is supposed to do.

All transactions have certain fields in common:

Each transaction type has additional fields relevant to the type of action it causes:

Pseudo-Transactions that are not created and submitted in the usual way, but may be added to open ledgers according to ledger rules. They still must be approved by consensus to be included in a validated ledger. Pseudo-transactions have their own unique transaction types:

AccountSet

[Source]

An AccountSet transaction modifies the properties of an account in the XRP Ledger.

Example AccountSet:

{
    "TransactionType": "AccountSet",
    "Account" : "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "Fee": "10000",
    "Sequence": 5,
    "Domain": "6D64756F31332E636F6D",
    "SetFlag": 5,
    "MessageKey": "rQD4SqHJtDxn5DDL7xNnojNa3vxS1Jx5gv"
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
ClearFlag Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Unique identifier of a flag to disable for this account.
Domain String VariableLength (Optional) The domain that owns this account, as a string of hex representing the ASCII for the domain in lowercase.
EmailHash String Hash128 (Optional) Hash of an email address to be used for generating an avatar image. Conventionally, clients use Gravatar to display this image.
MessageKey String PubKey (Optional) Public key for sending encrypted messages to this account.
SetFlag Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Integer flag to enable for this account.
TransferRate Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) The fee to charge when users transfer this account's issued currencies, represented as billionths of a unit. Cannot be more than 2000000000 or less than 1000000000, except for the special case 0 meaning no fee.
TickSize Unsigned Integer UInt8 (Optional) Tick size to use for offers involving a currency issued by this address. The exchange rates of those offers is rounded to this many significant digits. Valid values are 3 to 15 inclusive, or 0 to disable. (Requires the TickSize amendment.)
WalletLocator String Hash256 (Optional) Not used.
WalletSize Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Not used.

If none of these options are provided, then the AccountSet transaction has no effect (beyond destroying the transaction cost). See Canceling or Skipping a Transaction for more details.

Domain

The Domain field is represented as the hex string of the lowercase ASCII of the domain. For example, the domain example.com would be represented as "6578616d706c652e636f6d".

To remove the Domain field from an account, send an AccountSet with the Domain set to an empty string.

Client applications can use the ripple.txt file hosted by the domain to confirm that the account is actually operated by that domain.

AccountSet Flags

There are several options which can be either enabled or disabled for an account. Account options are represented by different types of flags depending on the situation:

  • The AccountSet transaction type has several "AccountSet Flags" (prefixed asf) that can enable an option when passed as the SetFlag parameter, or disable an option when passed as the ClearFlag parameter.
  • The AccountSet transaction type has several transaction flags (prefixed tf) that can be used to enable or disable specific account options when passed in the Flags parameter. This style is discouraged. New account options do not have corresponding transaction (tf) flags.
  • The AccountRoot ledger object type has several ledger-specific-flags (prefixed lsf) which represent the state of particular account options within a particular ledger. Naturally, the values apply until a later ledger version changes them.

The preferred way to enable and disable Account Flags is using the SetFlag and ClearFlag parameters of an AccountSet transaction. AccountSet flags have names that begin with asf.

All flags are off by default.

The available AccountSet flags are:

Flag Name Decimal Value Corresponding Ledger Flag Description
asfRequireDest 1 lsfRequireDestTag Require a destination tag to send transactions to this account.
asfRequireAuth 2 lsfRequireAuth Require authorization for users to hold balances issued by this address. Can only be enabled if the address has no trust lines connected to it.
asfDisallowXRP 3 lsfDisallowXRP XRP should not be sent to this account. (Enforced by client applications, not by rippled)
asfDisableMaster 4 lsfDisableMaster Disallow use of the master key. Can only be enabled if the account has configured another way to sign transactions, such as a Regular Key or a Signer List.
asfAccountTxnID 5 (None) Track the ID of this account's most recent transaction. Required for AccountTxnID
asfNoFreeze 6 lsfNoFreeze Permanently give up the ability to freeze individual trust lines or disable Global Freeze. This flag can never be disabled after being enabled.
asfGlobalFreeze 7 lsfGlobalFreeze Freeze all assets issued by this account.
asfDefaultRipple 8 lsfDefaultRipple Enable rippling on this account's trust lines by default. New in: rippled 0.27.3

To enable the asfDisableMaster or asfNoFreeze flags, you must authorize the transaction by signing it with the master key. You cannot use a regular key or a multi-signature. New in: rippled 0.28.0

The following Transaction flags, specific to the AccountSet transaction type, serve the same purpose, but are discouraged:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Replaced by AccountSet Flag
tfRequireDestTag 0x00010000 65536 asfRequireDest (SetFlag)
tfOptionalDestTag 0x00020000 131072 asfRequireDest (ClearFlag)
tfRequireAuth 0x00040000 262144 asfRequireAuth (SetFlag)
tfOptionalAuth 0x00080000 524288 asfRequireAuth (ClearFlag)
tfDisallowXRP 0x00100000 1048576 asfDisallowXRP (SetFlag)
tfAllowXRP 0x00200000 2097152 asfDisallowXRP (ClearFlag)

Blocking Incoming Transactions

Incoming transactions with unclear purposes may be an inconvenience for financial institutions, who would have to recognize when a customer made a mistake, and then potentially refund accounts or adjust balances depending on the mistake. The asfRequireDest and asfDisallowXRP flags are intended to protect users from accidentally sending funds in a way that is unclear about the reason the funds were sent.

For example, a destination tag is typically used to identify which hosted balance should be credited when a financial institution receives a payment. If the destination tag is omitted, it may be unclear which account should be credited, creating a need for refunds, among other problems. By using the asfRequireDest tag, you can ensure that every incoming payment has a destination tag, which makes it harder for others to send you an ambiguous payment by accident.

You can protect against unwanted incoming payments for non-XRP currencies by not creating trust lines in those currencies. Since XRP does not require trust, the asfDisallowXRP flag is used to discourage users from sending XRP to an account. However, this flag is not enforced in rippled because it could potentially cause accounts to become unusable. (If an account did not have enough XRP to send a transaction that disabled the flag, the account would be completely unusable.) Instead, client applications should disallow or discourage XRP payments to accounts with the asfDisallowXRP flag enabled.

TransferRate

The TransferRate field specifies a fee to charge whenever counterparties transfer the currency you issue. See Transfer Fees for more information.

In rippled's WebSocket and JSON-RPC APIs, the TransferRate is represented as an integer, the amount that must be sent for 1 billion units to arrive. For example, a 20% transfer fee is represented as the value 1200000000. The value cannot be less than 1000000000. (Less than that would indicate giving away money for sending transactions, which is exploitable.) You can specify 0 as a shortcut for 1000000000, meaning no fee.

EscrowCancel

[Source]

Requires the Escrow Amendment.

Return escrowed XRP to the sender.

Example EscrowCancel:

{
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "TransactionType": "EscrowCancel",
    "Owner": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "OfferSequence": 7,
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Owner String AccountID Address of the source account that funded the escrow payment.
OfferSequence Unsigned Integer UInt32 Transaction sequence of EscrowCreate transaction that created the escrow to cancel.

Any account may submit an EscrowCancel transaction.

  • If the corresponding EscrowCreate transaction did not specify a CancelAfter time, the EscrowCancel transaction fails.
  • Otherwise the EscrowCancel transaction fails if the CancelAfter time is after the close time of the most recently-closed ledger.

EscrowCreate

[Source]

Requires the Escrow Amendment.

Sequester XRP until the escrow process either finishes or is canceled.

Example EscrowCreate:

{
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "TransactionType": "EscrowCreate",
    "Amount": "10000",
    "Destination": "rsA2LpzuawewSBQXkiju3YQTMzW13pAAdW",
    "CancelAfter": 533257958,
    "FinishAfter": 533171558,
    "Condition": "A0258020E3B0C44298FC1C149AFBF4C8996FB92427AE41E4649B934CA495991B7852B855810100",
    "DestinationTag": 23480,
    "SourceTag": 11747
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Amount String Amount Amount of XRP, in drops, to deduct from the sender's balance and escrow. Once escrowed, the XRP can either go to the Destination address (after the FinishAfter time) or returned to the sender (after the CancelAfter time).
Destination String AccountID Address to receive escrowed XRP.
CancelAfter Number UInt32 (Optional) The time, in seconds since the Ripple Epoch, when this escrow expires. This value is immutable; the funds can only be returned the sender after this time.
FinishAfter Number UInt32 (Optional) The time, in seconds since the Ripple Epoch, when the escrowed XRP can be released to the recipient. This value is immutable; the funds cannot move until this time is reached.
Condition String VariableLength (Optional) Hex value representing a PREIMAGE-SHA-256 crypto-condition. The funds can only be delivered to the recipient if this condition is fulfilled.
DestinationTag Number UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary tag to further specify the destination for this escrowed payment, such as a hosted recipient at the destination address.
SourceTag Number UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary tag to further specify the source for this escrowed payment, such as a hosted sender at the source address.

Either CancelAfter or FinishAfter must be specified. If both are included, the FinishAfter time must precede that of CancelAfter.

EscrowFinish

[Source]

Requires the Escrow Amendment.

Deliver XRP from a held payment to the recipient.

Example EscrowFinish:

{
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "TransactionType": "EscrowFinish",
    "Owner": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "OfferSequence": 7,
    "Condition": "A0258020E3B0C44298FC1C149AFBF4C8996FB92427AE41E4649B934CA495991B7852B855810100",
    "Fulfillment": "A0028000"
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Owner String AccountID Address of the source account that funded the held payment.
OfferSequence Unsigned Integer UInt32 Transaction sequence of EscrowCreate transaction that created the held payment to finish.
Condition String VariableLength (Optional) Hex value matching the previously-supplied PREIMAGE-SHA-256 crypto-condition of the held payment.
Fulfillment String VariableLength (Optional) Hex value of the PREIMAGE-SHA-256 crypto-condition fulfillment matching the held payment's Condition.

Any account may submit an EscrowFinish transaction.

  • If the held payment has a FinishAfter time, you cannot execute it before this time. Specifically, if the corresponding EscrowCreate transaction specified a FinishAfter time that is after the close time of the most recently-closed ledger, the EscrowFinish transaction fails.
  • If the held payment has a Condition, you cannot execute it unless you provide a matching Fulfillment for the condition.
  • You cannot execute a held payment after it has expired. Specifically, if the corresponding EscrowCreate transaction specified a CancelAfter time that is before the close time of the most recently-closed ledger, the EscrowFinish transaction fails.

Note: The minimum transaction cost to submit an EscrowFinish transaction increases if it contains a fulfillment. If the transaction has no fulfillment, the transaction cost is the standard 10 drops. If the transaction contains a fulfillment, the transaction cost is 330 drops of XRP plus another 10 drops for every 16 bytes in size of the preimage.

OfferCancel

[Source]

An OfferCancel transaction removes an Offer object from the XRP Ledger.

{
    "TransactionType": "OfferCancel",
    "Account": "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
    "Fee": "12",
    "Flags": 0,
    "LastLedgerSequence": 7108629,
    "OfferSequence": 6,
    "Sequence": 7
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
OfferSequence Unsigned Integer UInt32 The sequence number of a previous OfferCreate transaction. If specified, cancel any offer object in the ledger that was created by that transaction. It is not considered an error if the offer specified does not exist.

Tip: To remove an old offer and replace it with a new one, you can use an OfferCreate transaction with an OfferSequence parameter, instead of using OfferCancel and another OfferCreate.

The OfferCancel method returns tesSUCCESS even if it did not find an offer with the matching sequence number.

OfferCreate

[Source]

An OfferCreate transaction is effectively a limit order. It defines an intent to exchange currencies, and creates an Offer object in the XRP Ledger if not completely fulfilled when placed. Offers can be partially fulfilled.

{
    "TransactionType": "OfferCreate",
    "Account": "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
    "Fee": "12",
    "Flags": 0,
    "LastLedgerSequence": 7108682,
    "Sequence": 8,
    "TakerGets": "6000000",
    "TakerPays": {
      "currency": "GKO",
      "issuer": "ruazs5h1qEsqpke88pcqnaseXdm6od2xc",
      "value": "2"
    }
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Expiration Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Time after which the offer is no longer active, in seconds since the Ripple Epoch.
OfferSequence Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) An offer to delete first, specified in the same way as OfferCancel.
TakerGets Currency Amount Amount The amount and type of currency being provided by the offer creator.
TakerPays Currency Amount Amount The amount and type of currency being requested by the offer creator.

Lifecycle of an Offer

When an OfferCreate transaction is processed, it automatically consumes matching or crossing offers to the extent possible. (If existing offers provide a better rate than requested, the offer creator could pay less than the full TakerGets amount to receive the entire TakerPays amount.) If that does not completely fulfill the TakerPays amount, then the offer becomes an Offer object in the ledger. (You can use OfferCreate Flags to modify this behavior.)

An offer in the ledger can be fulfilled either by additional OfferCreate transactions that match up with the existing offers, or by Payments that use the offer to connect the payment path. Offers can be partially fulfilled and partially funded. A single transaction can consume up to 850 Offers from the ledger. (Any more than that, and the metadata becomes too large, resulting in tecOVERSIZE.)

You can create an offer so long as you have at least some (any positive, nonzero amount) of the currency specified by the TakerGets parameter of the offer. The offer sells as much of the currency as you have, up to the TakerGets amount, until the TakerPays amount is satisfied. An offer cannot place anyone in debt.

It is possible for an offer to become temporarily or permanently unfunded:

  • If the creator no longer has any of the TakerGets currency.
    • The offer becomes funded again when the creator obtains more of that currency.
  • If the currency required to fund the offer is held in a frozen trust line.
    • The offer becomes funded again when the trust line is no longer frozen.
  • If the creator does not have enough XRP for the reserve amount of a new trust line required by the offer. (See Offers and Trust.)
    • The offer becomes funded again when the creator obtains more XRP, or the reserve requirements decrease.
  • If the Expiration time included in the offer is before the close time of the most recently-closed ledger. (See Expiration.)

An unfunded offer can stay on the ledger indefinitely, but it does not have any effect. The only ways an offer can be permanently removed from the ledger are:

  • It becomes fully claimed by a Payment or a matching OfferCreate transaction.
  • An OfferCancel or OfferCreate transaction explicitly cancels the offer.
  • An OfferCreate transaction from the same account crosses the earlier offer. (In this case, the older offer is automatically canceled.)
  • An offer is found to be unfunded during transaction processing, typically because it was at the tip of the orderbook.
    • This includes cases where one side or the other of an offer is found to be closer to 0 than rippled's precision supports.

Tracking Unfunded Offers

Tracking the funding status of all offers can be computationally taxing. In particular, addresses that are actively trading may have a large number of offers open. A single balance can affect the funding status of many offers to buy different currencies. Because of this, rippled does not proactively find and remove offers.

A client application can locally track the funding status of offers. To do this, first retreive an order book using the book_offers command and check the taker_gets_funded field of offers. Then, subscribe to the transactions stream and watch the transaction metadata to see which offers are modified.

Offers and Trust

The limit values of trust lines (See TrustSet) do not affect offers. In other words, you can use an offer to acquire more than the maximum amount you trust an issuer to redeem.

However, holding non-XRP balances still requires a trust line to the address issuing those balances. When an offer is taken, it automatically creates any necessary trust lines, setting their limits to 0. Because trust lines increase the reserve an account must hold, any offers that would require a new trust line also require the address to have enough XRP to meet the reserve for that trust line.

A trust line indicates an issuer you trust enough to accept their issuances as payment, within limits. Offers are explicit instructions to acquire certain issuances, so they are allowed to go beyond those limits.

Offer Preference

Existing offers are grouped by exchange rate (sometimes called "offer quality"), which is measured as the ratio between TakerGets and TakerPays. Offers with a higher exchange rate are taken preferentially. (That is, the person accepting the offer receives as much as possible for the amount of currency they pay out.) Offers with the same exchange rate are taken on the basis of which offer was placed in the earliest ledger version.

When offers of the same exchange rate are placed in the same ledger version, the order in which they are taken is determined by the canonical order in which the transactions were applied to the ledger. This behavior is designed to be deterministic, efficient, and hard to game.

TickSize

Requires the TickSize amendment.

When an Offer is placed into an order book, its exchange rate is truncated based on the TickSize values set by the issuers of the currencies involved in the Offer. When a trader offers to exchange XRP and an issued currency, the TickSize from the issuer of the currency applies. When a trader offers to exchange two issued currencies, the offer uses the smaller TickSize value (that is, the one with fewer significant digits). If neither currency has a TickSize set, the default behavior applies.

The TickSize value truncates the number of significant digits in the exchange rate of an offer when it gets placed in an order book. Issuers can set TickSize to an integer from 3 to 15 using an AccountSet transaction. The exchange rate is represented as significant digits and an exponent; the TickSize does not affect the exponent. This allows the XRP Ledger to represent exchange rates between assets that vary greatly in value (for example, a hyperinflated currency compared to a rare commodity). The lower the TickSize an issuer sets, the larger the increment traders must offer to be considered a higher exchange rate than the existing Offers.

The TickSize does not affect the part of an Offer that can be executed immediately. (For that reason, OfferCreate transactions with tfImmediateOrCancel are unaffected by TickSize values.) If the Offer cannot be fully executed, the transaction processing engine calculates the exchange rate and truncates it based on TickSize. Then, the engine rounds the remaining amount of the Offer from the "less important" side to match the truncated exchange rate. For a default OfferCreate transaction (a "buy" Offer), the TakerPays amount (the amount being bought) gets rounded. If the tfSell flag is enabled (a "sell" Offer) the TakerGets amount (the amount being sold) gets rounded.

When an issuer enables, disables, or changes the TickSize, Offers that were placed under the previous setting are unaffected.

Expiration

Since transactions can take time to propagate and confirm, the timestamp of a ledger is used to determine offer validity. An offer only expires when its Expiration time is before the most-recently validated ledger. In other words, an offer with an Expiration field is still considered "active" if its expiration time is later than the timestamp of the most-recently validated ledger, regardless of what your local clock says.

You can determine the final disposition of an offer with an Expiration as soon as you see a fully-validated ledger with a close time equal to or greater than the expiration time.

Note: Since only new transactions can modify the ledger, an expired offer can stay on the ledger after it becomes inactive. The offer is treated as unfunded and has no effect, but it can continue to appear in results (for example, from the ledger_entry command). Later on, the expired offer can get finally deleted as a result of another transaction (such as another OfferCreate) if the server finds it while processing.

If an OfferCreate transaction has an Expiration time that has already passed when the transaction first gets included in a ledger, the transaction does not execute the offer but still results in a tesSUCCESS transaction code. (This is because such a transaction could still successfully cancel another offer.)

Auto-Bridging

Any OfferCreate that would exchange two non-XRP currencies could potentially use XRP as an intermediary currency in a synthetic order book. This is because of auto-bridging, which serves to improve liquidity across all currency pairs by using XRP as a vehicle currency. This works because of XRP's nature as a native cryptocurrency to the XRP Ledger. Offer execution can use a combination of direct and auto-bridged offers to achieve the best total exchange rate.

Example: Anita places an offer to sell GBP and buy BRL. She might fund that this uncommon currency market has few offers. There is one offer with a good rate, but it has insufficient quantity to satisfy Anita's trade. However, both GBP and BRL have active, competitive markets to XRP. Auto-bridging software finds a way to complete Anita's offer by purchasing XRP with GBP from one trader, then selling the XRP to another trader to buy BRL. Anita automatically gets the best rate possible by combining the small offer in the direct GBP:BRL market with the better composite rates created by pairing GBP:XRP and XRP:BRL offers.

Auto-bridging happens automatically on any OfferCreate transaction. Payment transactions do not autobridge by default, but path-finding can find paths that have the same effect.

OfferCreate Flags

Transactions of the OfferCreate type support additional values in the Flags field, as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfPassive 0x00010000 65536 If enabled, the offer does not consume offers that exactly match it, and instead becomes an Offer object in the ledger. It still consumes offers that cross it.
tfImmediateOrCancel 0x00020000 131072 Treat the offer as an Immediate or Cancel order. If enabled, the offer never becomes a ledger object: it only tries to match existing offers in the ledger.
tfFillOrKill 0x00040000 262144 Treat the offer as a Fill or Kill order. Only try to match existing offers in the ledger, and only do so if the entire TakerPays quantity can be obtained.
tfSell 0x00080000 524288 Exchange the entire TakerGets amount, even if it means obtaining more than the TakerPays amount in exchange.

The following invalid flag combination prompts a temINVALID_FLAG error:

  • tfImmediateOrCancel and tfFillOrKill

Note: When an OfferCreate uses tfImmediateOrCancel or tfFillOrKill and the offer cannot be executed when placed, the transaction may conclude "successfully" without trading any currency or having any effect on the order books. In this case, the transaction has the result code tesSUCCESS, it pays the transaction cost and uses up a Sequence number, but has no other effect.

Payment

[Source]

A Payment transaction represents a transfer of value from one account to another. (Depending on the path taken, this can involve additional exchanges of value, which occur atomically.)

Payments are also the only way to create accounts.

Example payment:

{
  "TransactionType" : "Payment",
  "Account" : "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
  "Destination" : "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
  "Amount" : {
     "currency" : "USD",
     "value" : "1",
     "issuer" : "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn"
  },
  "Fee": "10",
  "Flags": 2147483648,
  "Sequence": 2,
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Amount Currency Amount Amount The amount of currency to deliver. For non-XRP amounts, the nested field names MUST be lower-case. If the tfPartialPayment flag is set, deliver up to this amount instead.
Destination String Account The unique address of the account receiving the payment.
DestinationTag Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary tag that identifies the reason for the payment to the destination, or a hosted recipient to pay.
InvoiceID String Hash256 (Optional) Arbitrary 256-bit hash representing a specific reason or identifier for this payment.
Paths Array of path arrays PathSet (Optional, auto-fillable) Array of payment paths to be used for this transaction. Must be omitted for XRP-to-XRP transactions.
SendMax Currency Amount Amount (Optional) Highest amount of source currency this transaction is allowed to cost, including transfer fees, exchange rates, and slippage. Does not include the XRP destroyed as a cost for submitting the transaction. For non-XRP amounts, the nested field names MUST be lower-case. Must be supplied for cross-currency/cross-issue payments. Must be omitted for XRP-to-XRP payments.
DeliverMin Currency Amount Amount (Optional) Minimum amount of destination currency this transaction should deliver. Only valid if this is a partial payment. For non-XRP amounts, the nested field names are lower-case.

Special issuer Values for SendMax and Amount

Most of the time, the issuer field of a non-XRP Currency Amount indicates a financial institution's issuing address. However, when describing payments, there are special rules for the issuer field in the Amount and SendMax fields of a payment.

  • There is only ever one balance for the same currency between two addresses. This means that, sometimes, the issuer field of an amount actually refers to a counterparty that is redeeming issuances, instead of the address that created the issuances.
  • When the issuer field of the destination Amount field matches the Destination address, it is treated as a special case meaning "any issuer that the destination accepts." This includes all addresses to which the destination has extended trust lines, as well as issuances created by the destination which are held on other trust lines.
  • When the issuer field of the SendMax field matches the source account's address, it is treated as a special case meaning "any issuer that the source can use." This includes creating new issuances on trust lines that other accounts have extended to the source account, and sending issuances the source account holds from other issuers.

Creating Accounts

The Payment transaction type is the only way to create new accounts in the XRP Ledger. To do so, send an amount of XRP that is equal or greater than the account reserve to a mathematically-valid account address that does not exist yet. When the Payment is processed, a new AccountRoot object is added to the ledger.

If you send an insufficient amount of XRP, or any other currency, the Payment fails.

Paths

If present, the Paths field must contain a path set - an array of path arrays. Each individual path represents one way value can flow from the sender to receiver through various intermediary accounts and order books. A single transaction can potentially use multiple paths, for example if the transaction exchanges currency using several different order books to achieve the best rate.

You must omit the Paths field for direct payments, including:

  • An XRP-to-XRP transfer.
  • A direct transfer on a trust line that connects the sender and receiver.

If the Paths field is provided, the server decides at transaction processing time which paths to use, from the provided set plus a default path (the most direct way possible to connect the specified accounts). This decision is deterministic and attempts to minimize costs, but it is not guaranteed to be perfect.

The Paths field must not be an empty array, nor an array whose members are all empty arrays.

For more information, see Paths.

Payment Flags

Transactions of the Payment type support additional values in the Flags field, as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfNoDirectRipple 0x00010000 65536 Do not use the default path; only use paths included in the Paths field. This is intended to force the transaction to take arbitrage opportunities. Most clients do not need this.
tfPartialPayment 0x00020000 131072 If the specified Amount cannot be sent without spending more than SendMax, reduce the received amount instead of failing outright. See Partial Payments for more details.
tfLimitQuality 0x00040000 262144 Only take paths where all the conversions have an input:output ratio that is equal or better than the ratio of Amount:SendMax. See Limit Quality for details.

Partial Payments

A partial payment allows a payment to succeed by reducing the amount received. Partial payments are useful for returning payments without incurring additional costs to oneself. However, partial payments can also be used to exploit integrations that naively assume the Amount field of a successful transaction always describes the exact amount delivered.

A partial payment is any Payment transaction with the tfPartialPayment flag enabled. A partial payment can be successful if it delivers any positive amount greater than or equal to its DeliverMin field (or any positive amount at all if DeliverMin is not specified) without sending more than the SendMax value.

The delivered_amount field of a payment's metadata indicates the amount of currency actually received by the destination account.

For more information, see the full article on Partial Payments.

Limit Quality

The XRP Ledger defines the "quality" of a currency exchange as the ratio of the numeric amount in to the numeric amount out. For example, if you spend $2 USD to receive £1 GBP, then the "quality" of that exchange is 0.5.

The tfLimitQuality flag allows you to set a minimum quality of conversions that you are willing to take. This limit quality is defined as the destination Amount divided by the SendMax amount (the numeric amounts only, regardless of currency). When set, the payment processing engine avoids using any paths whose quality (conversion rate) is worse (numerically lower) than the limit quality.

By itself, the tfLimitQuality flag reduces the number of situations in which a transaction can succeed. Specifically, it rejects payments where some part of the payment uses an unfavorable conversion, even if the overall average average quality of conversions in the payment is equal or better than the limit quality. If a payment is rejected in this way, the transaction result is tecPATH_DRY.

Consider the following example. If I am trying to send you 100 Chinese Yuan (Amount = 100 CNY) for 20 United States dollars (SendMax = 20 USD) or less, then the limit quality is 5. Imagine one trader is offering ¥95 for $15 (a ratio of about 6.3 CNY per USD), but the next best offer in the market is ¥5 for $2 (a ratio of 2.5 CNY per USD). If I were to take both offers to send you 100 CNY, then it would cost me 17 USD, for an average quality of about 5.9.

Without the tfLimitQuality flag set, this transaction would succeed, because the $17 it costs me is within my specified SendMax. However, with the tfLimitQuality flag enabled, the transaction would fail instead, because the path to take the second offer has a quality of 2.5, which is worse than the limit quality of 5.

The tfLimitQuality flag is most useful when combined with partial payments. When both tfPartialPayment and tfLimitQuality are set on a transaction, then the transaction delivers as much of the destination Amount as it can, without using any conversions that are worse than the limit quality.

In the above example with a ¥95/$15 offer and a ¥5/$2 offer, the situation is different if my transaction has both tfPartialPayment and tfLimitQuality enabled. If we keep my SendMax of 20 USD and a destination Amount of 100 CNY, then the limit quality is still 5. However, because I am doing a partial payment, the transaction sends as much as it can instead of failing if the full destination amount cannot be sent. This means that my transaction consumes the ¥95/$15 offer, whose quality is about 6.3, but it rejects the ¥5/$2 offer because that offer's quality of 2.5 is worse than the quality limit of 5. In the end, my transaction only delivers ¥95 instead of the full ¥100, but it avoids wasting money on poor exchange rates.

PaymentChannelClaim

[Source]

Requires the PayChan Amendment.

Claim XRP from a payment channel, adjust the payment channel's expiration, or both. This transaction can be used differently depending on the transaction sender's role in the specified channel:

The source address of a channel can:

  • Send XRP from the channel to the destination with or without a signed Claim.
  • Set the channel to expire as soon as the channel's SettleDelay has passed.
  • Clear a pending Expiration time.
  • Close a channel immediately, with or without processing a claim first. The source address cannot close the channel immediately if the channel has XRP remaining.

The destination address of a channel can:

  • Receive XRP from the channel using a signed Claim.
  • Close the channel immediately after processing a Claim, refunding any unclaimed XRP to the channel's source.

Any address sending this transaction can:

  • Cause a channel to be closed if its Expiration or CancelAfter time is older than the previous ledger's close time. Any validly-formed PaymentChannelClaim transaction has this effect regardless of the contents of the transaction.

Example PaymentChannelClaim:

{
  "Channel": "C1AE6DDDEEC05CF2978C0BAD6FE302948E9533691DC749DCDD3B9E5992CA6198",
  "Balance": "1000000",
  "Amount": "1000000",
  "Signature": "30440220718D264EF05CAED7C781FF6DE298DCAC68D002562C9BF3A07C1E721B420C0DAB02203A5A4779EF4D2CCC7BC3EF886676D803A9981B928D3B8ACA483B80ECA3CD7B9B",
  "PublicKey": "32D2471DB72B27E3310F355BB33E339BF26F8392D5A93D3BC0FC3B566612DA0F0A"
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Channel String Hash256 The unique ID of the channel, as a 64-character hexadecimal string.
Balance String Amount (Optional) Total amount of XRP, in drops, delivered by this channel after processing this claim. Required to deliver XRP. Must be more than the total amount delivered by the channel so far, but not greater than the Amount of the signed claim. Must be provided except when closing the channel.
Amount String Amount (Optional) The amount of XRP, in drops, authorized by the Signature. This must match the amount in the signed message. This is the cumulative amount of XRP that can be dispensed by the channel, including XRP previously redeemed.
Signature String VariableLength (Optional) The signature of this claim, as hexadecimal. The signed message contains the channel ID and the amount of the claim. Required unless the sender of the transaction is the source address of the channel.
PublicKey String PubKey (Optional) The public key used for the signature, as hexadecimal. This must match the PublicKey stored in the ledger for the channel. Required unless the sender of the transaction is the source address of the channel and the Signature field is omitted. (The transaction includes the PubKey so that rippled can check the validity of the signature before trying to apply the transaction to the ledger.)

PaymentChannelClaim Flags

Transactions of the PaymentChannelClaim type support additional values in the Flags field, as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfRenew 0x00010000 65536 Clear the channel's Expiration time. (Expiration is different from the channel's immutable CancelAfter time.) Only the source address of the payment channel can use this flag.
tfClose 0x00020000 131072 Request to close the channel. Only the channel source and destination addresses can use this flag. This flag closes the channel immediately if it has no more XRP allocated to it after processing the current claim, or if the destination address uses it. If the source address uses this flag when the channel still holds XRP, this schedules the channel to close after SettleDelay seconds have passed. (Specifically, this sets the Expiration of the channel to the close time of the previous ledger plus the channel's SettleDelay time, unless the channel already has an earlier Expiration time.) If the destination address uses this flag when the channel still holds XRP, any XRP that remains after processing the claim is returned to the source address.

PaymentChannelCreate

[Source]

Requires the PayChan Amendment.

Create a unidirectional channel and fund it with XRP. The address sending this transaction becomes the "source address" of the payment channel.

Example PaymentChannelCreate:

{
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "TransactionType": "PaymentChannelCreate",
    "Amount": "10000",
    "Destination": "rsA2LpzuawewSBQXkiju3YQTMzW13pAAdW",
    "SettleDelay": 86400,
    "PublicKey": "32D2471DB72B27E3310F355BB33E339BF26F8392D5A93D3BC0FC3B566612DA0F0A",
    "CancelAfter": 533171558,
    "DestinationTag": 23480,
    "SourceTag": 11747
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Amount String Amount Amount of XRP, in drops, to deduct from the sender's balance and set aside in this channel. While the channel is open, the XRP can only go to the Destination address. When the channel closes, any unclaimed XRP is returned to the source address's balance.
Destination String AccountID Address to receive XRP claims against this channel. This is also known as the "destination address" for the channel.
SettleDelay Number UInt32 Amount of time the source address must wait before closing the channel if it has unclaimed XRP.
PublicKey String PubKey The public key of the key pair the source will use to sign claims against this channel, in hexadecimal. This can be any secp256k1 or Ed25519 public key.
CancelAfter Number UInt32 (Optional) The time, in seconds since the Ripple Epoch, when this channel expires. Any transaction that would modify the channel after this time closes the channel without otherwise affecting it. This value is immutable; the channel can be closed earlier than this time but cannot remain open after this time.
DestinationTag Number UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary tag to further specify the destination for this payment channel, such as a hosted recipient at the destination address.
SourceTag Number UInt32 (Optional) Arbitrary tag to further specify the source for this payment channel, such as a hosted sender at the source address.

PaymentChannelFund

[Source]

Requires the PayChan Amendment.

Add additional XRP to an open payment channel, update the expiration time of the channel, or both. Only the source address of the channel can use this transaction. (Transactions from other addresses fail with the error tecNO_PERMISSION.)

Example PaymentChannelFund:

{
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "TransactionType": "PaymentChannelFund",
    "Channel": "C1AE6DDDEEC05CF2978C0BAD6FE302948E9533691DC749DCDD3B9E5992CA6198",
    "Amount": "200000",
    "Expiration": 543171558
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Channel String Hash256 The unique ID of the channel to fund, as a 64-character hexadecimal string.
Amount String Amount Amount of XRP, in drops to add to the channel. To set the expiration for a channel without adding more XRP, set this to "0".
Expiration Number UInt32 (Optional) New Expiration time to set for the channel, in seconds since the Ripple Epoch. This must be later than either the current time plus the SettleDelay of the channel, or the existing Expiration of the channel. After the Expiration time, any transaction that would access the channel closes the channel without taking its normal action. Any unspent XRP is returned to the source address when the channel closes. (Expiration is separate from the channel's immutable CancelAfter time.)

SetRegularKey

[Source]

A SetRegularKey transaction changes the regular key associated with an address.

{
    "Flags": 0,
    "TransactionType": "SetRegularKey",
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "Fee": "12",
    "RegularKey": "rAR8rR8sUkBoCZFawhkWzY4Y5YoyuznwD"
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
RegularKey String AccountID (Optional) A base-58-encoded Ripple address to use as the regular key. If omitted, removes the existing regular key.

In addition to the master key, which is mathematically-related to an address, you can associate at most 1 additional key pair with an address using this type of transaction. The additional key pair is called a regular key. If your address has a regular key pair defined, you can use the secret key of the regular key pair to authorize transactions.

A regular key pair is generated in the same way as any other Ripple keys (for example, with wallet_propose), but it can be changed. A master key pair is an intrinsic part of an address's identity (the address is derived from the master public key). You can disable a master key but you cannot change it.

You can protect your master secret by using a regular key instead of the master key to sign transactions whenever possible. If your regular key is compromised, but the master key is not, you can use a SetRegularKey transaction to regain control of your address. In some cases, you can even send a key reset transaction without paying the transaction cost.

For even greater security, you can use multi-signing, but multi-signing requires additional XRP for the transaction cost and reserve.

SignerListSet

[Source]

The SignerListSet transaction creates, replaces, or removes a list of signers that can be used to multi-sign a transaction. This transaction type was introduced by the MultiSign amendment. New in: rippled 0.31.0

Example SignerListSet:

{
    "Flags": 0,
    "TransactionType": "SignerListSet",
    "Account": "rf1BiGeXwwQoi8Z2ueFYTEXSwuJYfV2Jpn",
    "Fee": "10000",
    "SignerQuorum": 3,
    "SignerEntries": [
        {
            "SignerEntry": {
                "Account": "rsA2LpzuawewSBQXkiju3YQTMzW13pAAdW",
                "SignerWeight": 2
            }
        },
        {
            "SignerEntry": {
                "Account": "rUpy3eEg8rqjqfUoLeBnZkscbKbFsKXC3v",
                "SignerWeight": 1
            }
        },
        {
            "SignerEntry": {
                "Account": "raKEEVSGnKSD9Zyvxu4z6Pqpm4ABH8FS6n",
                "SignerWeight": 1
            }
        }
    ]
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
SignerQuorum Number UInt32 A target number for the signer weights. A multi-signature from this list is valid only if the sum weights of the signatures provided is greater than or equal to this value. To delete a SignerList, use the value 0.
SignerEntries Array Array (Omitted when deleting) Array of SignerEntry objects, indicating the addresses and weights of signers in this list. A SignerList must have at least 1 member and no more than 8 members. No address may appear more than once in the list, nor may the Account submitting the transaction appear in the list.

An account may not have more than one SignerList. A successful SignerListSet transaction replaces the existing SignerList, if one exists. To delete a SignerList, you must set SignerQuorum to 0 and omit the SignerEntries field. Otherwise, the transaction fails with the error temMALFORMED. A transaction to delete a SignerList is considered successful even if there was no SignerList to delete.

You cannot create a SignerList such that the SignerQuorum could never be met. The SignerQuorum must be greater than 0 but less than or equal to the sum of the SignerWeight values in the list. Otherwise, the transaction fails with the error temMALFORMED.

You can create, update, or remove a SignerList using the master key, regular key, or the current SignerList, if those methods of signing transactions are available.

You cannot remove the last method of signing transactions from an account. If an account's master key is disabled (it has the lsfDisableMaster flag enabled) and the account does not have a Regular Key configured, then you cannot delete the SignerList from the account. Instead, the transaction fails with the error tecNO_ALTERNATIVE_KEY.

TrustSet

[Source]

Create or modify a trust line linking two accounts.

{
    "TransactionType": "TrustSet",
    "Account": "ra5nK24KXen9AHvsdFTKHSANinZseWnPcX",
    "Fee": "12",
    "Flags": 262144,
    "LastLedgerSequence": 8007750,
    "LimitAmount": {
      "currency": "USD",
      "issuer": "rsP3mgGb2tcYUrxiLFiHJiQXhsziegtwBc",
      "value": "100"
    },
    "Sequence": 12
}
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
LimitAmount Object Amount Object defining the trust line to create or modify, in the format of a Currency Amount.
LimitAmount.currency String (Amount.currency) The currency to this trust line applies to, as a three-letter ISO 4217 Currency Code or a 160-bit hex value according to currency format. "XRP" is invalid.
LimitAmount.value String (Amount.value) Quoted decimal representation of the limit to set on this trust line.
LimitAmount.issuer String (Amount.issuer) The address of the account to extend trust to.
QualityIn Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Value incoming balances on this trust line at the ratio of this number per 1,000,000,000 units. A value of 0 is shorthand for treating balances at face value.
QualityOut Unsigned Integer UInt32 (Optional) Value outgoing balances on this trust line at the ratio of this number per 1,000,000,000 units. A value of 0 is shorthand for treating balances at face value.

Trust Limits

All balances on the XRP Ledger, except for XRP, represent value owed in the world outside the XRP Ledger. The address that issues those funds in the XRP Ledger (identified by the issuer field of the LimitAmount object) is expected to pay the balance back, outside of the XRP Ledger, when users redeem their XRP Ledger balances by returning them to the issuer.

Since a computer program cannot force a someone to keep a promise and not default in real life, trust lines represent a way of configuring how much you trust an issuer to hold on your behalf. Since a large, reputable financial institution is more likely to be able to pay you back than, say, your broke roommate, you can set different limits on each trust line, to indicate the maximum amount you are willing to let the issuer "owe" you in the XRP Ledger. If the issuer defaults or goes out of business, you can lose up to that much money because the balances you hold in the XRP Ledger can no longer be exchanged for equivalent balances elsewhere. (You can still keep or trade the issuances in the XRP Ledger, but they no longer have any reason to be worth anything.)

There are two cases where you can hold a balance on a trust line that is greater than your limit: when you acquire more of that currency through trading, or when you decrease the limit on your trust line.

Since a trust line occupies space in the ledger, a trust line increases the XRP your account must hold in reserve. This applies to the account extending trust, not to the account receiving it.

A trust line with settings in the default state is equivalent to no trust line.

The default state of all flags is off, except for the NoRipple flag, whose default state depends on the DefaultRipple flag.

The Auth flag of a trust line does not determine whether the trust line counts towards its owner's XRP reserve requirement. However, an enabled Auth flag prevents the trust line from being in its default state. An authorized trust line can never be deleted. An issuer can pre-authorize a trust line with the tfSetfAuth flag only, even if the limit and balance of the trust line are 0.

TrustSet Flags

Transactions of the TrustSet type support additional values in the Flags field, as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfSetfAuth 0x00010000 65536 Authorize the other party to hold issuances from this account. (No effect unless using the asfRequireAuth AccountSet flag.) Cannot be unset.
tfSetNoRipple 0x00020000 131072 Blocks rippling between two trustlines of the same currency, if this flag is set on both. (See No Ripple for details.)
tfClearNoRipple 0x00040000 262144 Clears the No-Rippling flag. (See NoRipple for details.)
tfSetFreeze 0x00100000 1048576 Freeze the trustline.
tfClearFreeze 0x00200000 2097152 Unfreeze the trustline.

Pseudo-Transactions

Pseudo-Transactions are never submitted by users, nor propagated through the network. Instead, a server may choose to inject them in a proposed ledger directly. If enough servers inject an equivalent pseudo-transaction for it to pass consensus, then it becomes included in the ledger, and appears in ledger data thereafter.

Some of the fields that are mandatory for normal transactions do not make sense for pseudo-transactions. In those cases, the pseudo-transaction has the following default values:

Field Default Value
Account ACCOUNT_ZERO
Sequence 0
Fee 0
SigningPubKey ""
Signature ""

EnableAmendment

Tracks the progress of the amendment process for changes in transaction processing. This can indicate that a proposed amendment gained or lost majority approval, or that an amendment has been enabled.

Note: You cannot send a pseudo-transaction, but you may find one when processing ledgers.

Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
Amendment String Hash256 A unique identifier for the amendment. This is not intended to be a human-readable name. See Amendments for a list of known amendments.
LedgerSequence Number UInt32 The index of the ledger version where this amendment appears. This distinguishes the pseudo-transaction from other occurrences of the same change.

EnableAmendment Flags

The Flags value of the EnableAmendment pseudo-transaction indicates the status of the amendment at the time of the ledger including the pseudo-transaction.

A Flags value of 0 (no flags) indicates that the amendment has been enabled, and applies to all ledgers afterward. Other Flags values are as follows:

Flag Name Hex Value Decimal Value Description
tfGotMajority 0x00010000 65536 Support for this amendment increased to at least 80% of trusted validators starting with this ledger version.
tfLostMajority 0x00020000 131072 Support for this amendment decreased to less than 80% of trusted validators starting with this ledger version.

SetFee

A change in transaction cost or account reserve requirements as a result of Fee Voting.

Note: You cannot send a pseudo-transaction, but you may find one when processing ledgers.

{
    "Account": "rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrhoLvTp",
    "BaseFee": "000000000000000A",
    "Fee": "0",
    "ReferenceFeeUnits": 10,
    "ReserveBase": 20000000,
    "ReserveIncrement": 5000000,
    "Sequence": 0,
    "SigningPubKey": "",
    "TransactionType": "SetFee",
    "date": 439578860,
    "hash": "1C15FEA3E1D50F96B6598607FC773FF1F6E0125F30160144BE0C5CBC52F5151B",
    "ledger_index": 3721729,
  }
Field JSON Type Internal Type Description
BaseFee String UInt64 The charge, in drops of XRP, for the reference transaction, as hex. (This is the transaction cost before scaling for load.)
ReferenceFeeUnits Unsigned Integer UInt32 The cost, in fee units, of the reference transaction
ReserveBase Unsigned Integer UInt32 The base reserve, in drops
ReserveIncrement Unsigned Integer UInt32 The incremental reserve, in drops
LedgerSequence Number UInt32 The index of the ledger version where this pseudo-transaction appears. This distinguishes the pseudo-transaction from other occurrences of the same change.

Transaction Results

Immediate Response

The response from the submit command contains a provisional result from the rippled server indicating what happened during local processing of the transaction.

The response from submit contains the following fields:

Field Value Description
engine_result String A code that categorizes the result, such as tecPATH_DRY
engine_result_code Signed Integer A number that corresponds to the engine_result, although exact values are subject to change.
engine_result_message String A human-readable message explaining what happened. This message is intended for developers to diagnose problems, and is subject to change without notice.

If nothing went wrong when submitting and applying the transaction locally, the response looks like this:

    "engine_result": "tesSUCCESS",
    "engine_result_code": 0,
    "engine_result_message": "The transaction was applied. Only final in a validated ledger."

Note: A successful result at this stage does not indicate that the transaction has completely succeeded; only that it was successfully applied to the provisional version of the ledger kept by the local server. See Finality of Results for details.

Looking up Transaction Results

To see the final result of a transaction, use the tx command, account_tx command, or other response from rippled. Look for "validated": true to indicate that this response uses a ledger version that has been validated by consensus.

Field Value Description
meta.TransactionResult String A code that categorizes the result, such as tecPATH_DRY
validated Boolean Whether or not this result comes from a validated ledger. If false, then the result is provisional. If true, then the result is final.
    "hash": "E08D6E9754025BA2534A78707605E0601F03ACE063687A0CA1BDDACFCD1698C7",
    "meta": {
      ...
      "TransactionResult": "tesSUCCESS"
    },
    "validated": true

Result Categories

Both the engine_result and the meta.TransactionResult use standard codes to identify the results of transactions, as follows:

Category Prefix Description
Local error tel The rippled server had an error due to local conditions, such as high load. You may get a different response if you resubmit to a different server or at a different time.
Malformed transaction tem The transaction was not valid, due to improper syntax, conflicting options, a bad signature, or something else.
Failure tef The transaction cannot be applied to the server's current (in-progress) ledger or any later one. It may have already been applied, or the condition of the ledger makes it impossible to apply in the future.
Retry ter The transaction could not be applied, but it might be possible to apply later.
Success tes (Not an error) The transaction succeeded. This result only final in a validated ledger.
Claimed cost only tec The transaction did not achieve its intended purpose, but the transaction cost was destroyed. This result is only final in a validated ledger.

The distinction between a local error (tel) and a malformed transaction (tem) is a matter of protocol-level rules. For example, the protocol sets no limit on the maximum number of paths that can be included in a transaction. However, a server may define a finite limit of paths it can process. If two different servers are configured differently, then one of them may return a tel error for a transaction with many paths, while the other server could successfully process the transaction. If enough servers are able to process the transaction that it survives consensus, then it can still be included in a validated ledger.

By contrast, a tem error implies that no server anywhere can apply the transaction, regardless of settings. Either the transaction breaks the rules of the protocol, it is unacceptably ambiguous, or it is completely nonsensical. The only way a malformed transaction could become valid is through changes in the protocol; for example, if a new feature is adopted, then transactions using that feature could be considered malformed by servers that are running older software which predates that feature.

Claimed Cost Justification

Although it may seem unfair to charge a transaction cost for a failed transaction, the tec class of errors exists for good reasons:

  • Transactions submitted after the failed one do not have to have their Sequence values renumbered. Incorporating the failed transaction into a ledger uses up the transaction's sequence number, preserving the expected sequence.
  • Distributing the transaction throughout the network increases network load. Enforcing a cost makes it harder for attackers to abuse the network with failed transactions.
  • The transaction cost is generally very small in real-world value, so it should not harm users unless they are sending large quantities of transactions.

Finality of Results

The order in which transactions apply to the consensus ledger is not final until a ledger is closed and the exact transaction set is approved by the consensus process. A transaction that succeeded initially could still fail, and a transaction that failed initially could still succeed. Additionally, a transaction that was rejected by the consensus process in one round could achieve consensus in a later round.

A validated ledger can include successful transactions (tes result codes) as well as failed transactions (tec result codes). No transaction with any other result is included in a ledger.

For any other result code, it can be difficult to determine if the result is final. The following table summarizes when a transaction's outcome is final, based on the result code from submitting the transaction:

Error Code Finality
tesSUCCESS Final when included in a validated ledger
Any tec code Final when included in a validated ledger
Any tem code Final unless the protocol changes to make the transaction valid
tefPAST_SEQ Final when another transaction with the same sequence number is included in a validated ledger
tefMAX_LEDGER Final when a validated ledger has a sequence number higher than the transaction's LastLedgerSequence field, and no validated ledger includes the transaction

Any other transaction result is potentially not final. In that case, the transaction could still succeed or fail later, especially if conditions change such that the transaction is no longer prevented from applying. For example, trying to send a non-XRP currency to an account that does not exist yet would fail, but it could succeed if another transaction sends enough XRP to create the destination account. A server might even store a temporarily-failed, signed transaction and then successfully apply it later without asking first.

Understanding Transaction Metadata

The metadata section of a transaction includes detailed information about all the changes to the shared XRP Ledger that the transaction caused. This is true of any transaction that gets included in a ledger, whether or not it is successful. Naturally, the changes are only final if the transaction is validated.

Some fields that may appear in transaction metadata include:

Field Value Description
AffectedNodes Array List of ledger objects that were created, deleted, or modified by this transaction, and specific changes to each.
DeliveredAmount Currency Amount DEPRECATED. Replaced by delivered_amount. Omitted if not a partial payment.
TransactionIndex Unsigned Integer The transaction's position within the ledger that included it. (For example, the value 2 means it was the 2nd transaction in that ledger.)
TransactionResult String A result code indicating whether the transaction succeeded or how it failed.
delivered_amount Currency Amount The Currency Amount actually received by the Destination account. Use this field to determine how much was delivered, regardless of whether the transaction is a partial payment. New in: rippled 0.27.0

delivered_amount

The Amount of a Payment transaction indicates the amount to deliver to the Destination, so if the transaction was successful, then the destination received that much -- except if the transaction was a partial payment. (In that case, any positive amount up to Amount might have arrived.) Rather than choosing whether or not to trust the Amount field, you should use the delivered_amount field of the metadata to see how much actually reached its destination.

The delivered_amount field of transaction metadata is included in all successful Payment transactions, and is formatted like a normal currency amount. However, the delivered amount is not available for transactions that meet both of the following criteria:

  • Is a partial payment, and
  • Included in a validated ledger before 2014-01-20

If both conditions are true, then delivered_amount contains the string value unavailable instead of an actual amount. If this happens, you can only figure out the actual delivered amount by reading the AffectedNodes in the transaction's metadata.

See also: Partial Payments

Full Transaction Response List

[Source]

tel Codes

These codes indicate an error in the local server processing the transaction; it is possible that another server with a different configuration or load level could process the transaction successfully. They have numerical values in the range -399 to -300. The exact code for any given error is subject to change, so don't rely on it.

Code Explanation
telBAD_DOMAIN The transaction specified a domain value (for example, the Domain field of an AccountSet transaction) that cannot be used, probably because it is too long to store in the ledger.
telBAD_PATH_COUNT The transaction contains too many paths for the local server to process.
telBAD_PUBLIC_KEY The transaction specified a public key value (for example, as the MessageKey field of an AccountSet transaction) that cannot be used, probably because it is too long.
telCAN_NOT_QUEUE The transaction did not meet the open ledger cost, but this server did not queue this transaction because it did not meet the queuing restrictions. For example, a transaction returns this code when the sender already has 10 other transactions in the queue. You can try again later or sign and submit a replacement transaction with a higher transaction cost in the Fee field.
telCAN_NOT_QUEUE_BALANCE The transaction did not meet the open ledger cost and also was not added to the transaction queue because the sum of potential XRP costs of already-queued transactions is greater than the expected balance of the account. You can try again later, or try submitting to a different server. New in: rippled 0.70.2
telCAN_NOT_QUEUE_BLOCKS The transaction did not meet the open ledger cost and also was not added to the transaction queue. This transaction could not replace an existing transaction in the queue because it would block already-queued transactions from the same sender by changing authorization methods. (This includes all SetRegularKey and SignerListSet transactions, as well as AccountSet transactions that change the RequireAuth/OptionalAuth, DisableMaster, or AccountTxnID flags.) You can try again later, or try submitting to a different server. New in: rippled 0.70.2
telCAN_NOT_QUEUE_BLOCKED The transaction did not meet the open ledger cost and also was not added to the transaction queue because a transaction queued ahead of it from the same sender blocks it. (This includes all SetRegularKey and SignerListSet transactions, as well as AccountSet transactions that change the RequireAuth/OptionalAuth, DisableMaster, or AccountTxnID flags.) You can try again later, or try submitting to a different server. New in: rippled 0.70.2
telCAN_NOT_QUEUE_FEE The transaction did not meet the open ledger cost and also was not added to the transaction queue. This code occurs when a transaction with the same sender and sequence number already exists in the queue and the new one does not pay a large enough transaction cost to replace the existing transaction. To replace a transaction in the queue, the new transaction must have a Fee value that is at least 25% more, as measured in fee levels. You can increase the Fee and try again, send this with a higher Sequence number so it doesn't replace an existing transaction, or try sending to another server. New in: rippled 0.70.2
telCAN_NOT_QUEUE_FULL The transaction did not meet the open ledger cost and the server did not queue this transaction because this server's transaction queue is full. You could increase the Fee and try again, try again later, or try submitting to a different server. The new transaction must have a higher transaction cost, as measured in fee levels, than the transaction in the queue with the smallest transaction cost. New in: rippled 0.70.2
telFAILED_PROCESSING An unspecified error occurred when processing the transaction.
telINSUF_FEE_P The Fee from the transaction is not high enough to meet the server's current transaction cost requirement, which is derived from its load level.
telLOCAL_ERROR Unspecified local error.
telNO_DST_PARTIAL The transaction is an XRP payment that would fund a new account, but the tfPartialPayment flag was enabled. This is disallowed.

tem Codes

These codes indicate that the transaction was malformed, and cannot succeed according to the XRP Ledger protocol. They have numerical values in the range -299 to -200. The exact code for any given error is subject to change, so don't rely on it.

Code Explanation
temBAD_AMOUNT An amount specified by the transaction (for example the destination Amount or SendMax values of a Payment) was invalid, possibly because it was a negative number.
temBAD_AUTH_MASTER The key used to sign this transaction does not match the master key for the account sending it, and the account does not have a Regular Key set.
temBAD_CURRENCY The transaction improperly specified a currency field. See Specifying Currency Amounts for the correct format.
temBAD_EXPIRATION The transaction improperly specified an expiration value, for example as part of an OfferCreate transaction. Alternatively, the transaction did not specify a required expiration value, for example as part of an EscrowCreate transaction.
temBAD_FEE The transaction improperly specified its Fee value, for example by listing a non-XRP currency or some negative amount of XRP.
temBAD_ISSUER The transaction improperly specified the issuer field of some currency included in the request.
temBAD_LIMIT The TrustSet transaction improperly specified the LimitAmount value of a trustline.
temBAD_OFFER The OfferCreate transaction specifies an invalid offer, such as offering to trade XRP for itself, or offering a negative amount.
temBAD_PATH The Payment transaction specifies one or more Paths improperly, for example including an issuer for XRP, or specifying an account differently.
temBAD_PATH_LOOP One of the Paths in the Payment transaction was flagged as a loop, so it cannot be processed in a bounded amount of time.
temBAD_SEND_XRP_LIMIT The Payment transaction used the tfLimitQuality flag in a direct XRP-to-XRP payment, even though XRP-to-XRP payments do not involve any conversions.
temBAD_SEND_XRP_MAX The Payment transaction included a SendMax field in a direct XRP-to-XRP payment, even though sending XRP should never require SendMax. (XRP is only valid in SendMax if the destination Amount is not XRP.)
temBAD_SEND_XRP_NO_DIRECT The Payment transaction used the tfNoDirectRipple flag for a direct XRP-to-XRP payment, even though XRP-to-XRP payments are always direct.
temBAD_SEND_XRP_PARTIAL The Payment transaction used the tfPartialPayment flag for a direct XRP-to-XRP payment, even though XRP-to-XRP payments should always deliver the full amount.
temBAD_SEND_XRP_PATHS The Payment transaction included Paths while sending XRP, even though XRP-to-XRP payments should always be direct.
temBAD_SEQUENCE The transaction is references a sequence number that is higher than its own Sequence number, for example trying to cancel an offer that would have to be placed after the transaction that cancels it.
temBAD_SIGNATURE The signature to authorize this transaction is either missing, or formed in a way that is not a properly-formed signature. (See tecNO_PERMISSION for the case where the signature is properly formed, but not authorized for this account.)
temBAD_SRC_ACCOUNT The Account on whose behalf this transaction is being sent (the "source account") is not a properly-formed account address.
temBAD_TRANSFER_RATE The TransferRate field of an AccountSet transaction is not properly formatted or out of the acceptable range.
temDST_IS_SRC The TrustSet transaction improperly specified the destination of the trust line (the issuer field of LimitAmount) as the Account sending the transaction. You cannot extend a trust line to yourself. (In the future, this code could also apply to other cases where the destination of a transaction is not allowed to be the account sending it.)
temDST_NEEDED The transaction improperly omitted a destination. This could be the Destination field of a Payment transaction, or the issuer sub-field of the LimitAmount field fo a TrustSet transaction.
temINVALID The transaction is otherwise invalid. For example, the transaction ID may not be the right format, the signature may not be formed properly, or something else went wrong in understanding the transaction.
temINVALID_FLAG The transaction includes a Flag that does not exist, or includes a contradictory combination of flags.
temMALFORMED Unspecified problem with the format of the transaction.
temREDUNDANT The transaction would do nothing; for example, it is sending a payment directly to the sending account, or creating an offer to buy and sell the same currency from the same issuer.
temREDUNDANT_SEND_MAX Removed in: rippled 0.28.0
temRIPPLE_EMPTY The Payment transaction includes an empty Paths field, but paths are necessary to complete this payment.
temBAD_WEIGHT The SignerListSet transaction includes a SignerWeight that is invalid, for example a zero or negative value.
temBAD_SIGNER The SignerListSet transaction includes a signer who is invalid. For example, there may be duplicate entries, or the owner of the SignerList may also be a member.
temBAD_QUORUM The SignerListSet transaction has an invalid SignerQuorum value. Either the value is not greater than zero, or it is more than the sum of all signers in the list.
temUNCERTAIN Used internally only. This code should never be returned.
temUNKNOWN Used internally only. This code should never be returned.
temDISABLED The transaction requires logic that is disabled. Typically this means you are trying to use an amendment that is not enabled for the current ledger.

tef Codes

These codes indicate that the transaction failed and was not included in a ledger, but the transaction could have succeeded in some theoretical ledger. Typically this means that the transaction can no longer succeed in any future ledger. They have numerical values in the range -199 to -100. The exact code for any given error is subject to change, so don't rely on it.

Code Explanation
tefALREADY The same exact transaction has already been applied.
tefBAD_ADD_AUTH DEPRECATED.
tefBAD_AUTH The key used to sign this account is not authorized to modify this account. (It could be authorized if the account had the same key set as the Regular Key.)
tefBAD_AUTH_MASTER The single signature provided to authorize this transaction does not match the master key, but no regular key is associated with this address.
tefBAD_LEDGER While processing the transaction, the ledger was discovered in an unexpected state. If you can reproduce this error, please report an issue to get it fixed.
tefBAD_QUORUM The transaction was multi-signed, but the total weights of all included signatures did not meet the quorum.
tefBAD_SIGNATURE The transaction was multi-signed, but contained a signature for an address not part of a SignerList associated with the sending account.
tefCREATED DEPRECATED.
tefEXCEPTION While processing the transaction, the server entered an unexpected state. This may be caused by unexpected inputs, for example if the binary data for the transaction is grossly malformed. If you can reproduce this error, please report an issue to get it fixed.
tefFAILURE Unspecified failure in applying the transaction.
tefINTERNAL When trying to apply the transaction, the server entered an unexpected state. If you can reproduce this error, please report an issue to get it fixed.
tefINVARIANT_FAILED An invariant check failed when trying to claim the transaction cost. Requires the EnforceInvariants amendment. If you can reproduce this error, please report an issue.
tefMASTER_DISABLED The transaction was signed with the account's master key, but the account has the lsfDisableMaster field set.
tefMAX_LEDGER The transaction included a LastLedgerSequence parameter, but the current ledger's sequence number is already higher than the specified value.
tefNO_AUTH_REQUIRED The TrustSet transaction tried to mark a trustline as authorized, but the lsfRequireAuth flag is not enabled for the corresponding account, so authorization is not necessary.
tefNOT_MULTI_SIGNING The transaction was multi-signed, but the sending account has no SignerList defined.
tefPAST_SEQ The sequence number of the transaction is lower than the current sequence number of the account sending the transaction.
tefWRONG_PRIOR The transaction contained an AccountTxnID field (or the deprecated PreviousTxnID field), but the transaction specified there does not match the account's previous transaction.

ter Codes

These codes indicate that the transaction failed, but it could apply successfully in the future, usually if some other hypothetical transaction applies first. They have numerical values in the range -99 to -1. The exact code for any given error is subject to change, so don't rely on it.

Code Explanation
terFUNDS_SPENT DEPRECATED.
terINSUF_FEE_B The account sending the transaction does not have enough XRP to pay the Fee specified in the transaction.
terLAST Used internally only. This code should never be returned.
terNO_ACCOUNT The address sending the transaction is not funded in the ledger (yet).
terNO_AUTH The transaction would involve adding currency issued by an account with lsfRequireAuth enabled to a trust line that is not authorized. For example, you placed an offer to buy a currency you aren't authorized to hold.
terNO_LINE Used internally only. This code should never be returned.
terNO_RIPPLE Used internally only. This code should never be returned.
terOWNERS The transaction requires that account sending it has a nonzero "owners count", so the transaction cannot succeed. For example, an account cannot enable the lsfRequireAuth flag if it has any trust lines or available offers.
terPRE_SEQ The Sequence number of the current transaction is higher than the current sequence number of the account sending the transaction.
terRETRY Unspecified retriable error.
terQUEUED The transaction met the load-scaled transaction cost but did not meet the open ledger requirement, so the transaction has been queued for a future ledger.

tes Success

The code tesSUCCESS is the only code that indicates a transaction succeeded. This does not always mean it did what it was supposed to do. (For example, an OfferCancel can "succeed" even if there is no offer for it to cancel.) Success uses the numerical value 0.

Code Explanation
tesSUCCESS The transaction was applied and forwarded to other servers. If this appears in a validated ledger, then the transaction's success is final.

tec Codes

These codes indicate that the transaction failed, but it was applied to a ledger to apply the transaction cost. They have numerical values in the range 100 to 199. The exact codes sometimes appear in ledger data, so they do not change, but we recommend not relying on the numeric value regardless.

Code Value Explanation
tecCLAIM 100 Unspecified failure, with transaction cost destroyed.
tecCRYPTOCONDITION_ERROR 146 This EscrowCreate or EscrowFinish transaction contained a malformed or mismatched crypto-condition.
tecDIR_FULL 121 The address sending the transaction cannot own any more objects in the ledger.
tecDST_TAG_NEEDED 143 The Payment transaction omitted a destination tag, but the destination account has the lsfRequireDestTag flag enabled. New in: rippled 0.28.0
tecFAILED_PROCESSING 105 An unspecified error occurred when processing the transaction.
tecFROZEN 137 The OfferCreate transaction failed because one or both of the assets involved are subject to a global freeze.
tecINSUF_RESERVE_LINE 122 The transaction failed because the sending account does not have enough XRP to create a new trust line. (See: Reserves) This error occurs when the counterparty already has a trust line in a non-default state to the sending account for the same currency. (See tecNO_LINE_INSUF_RESERVE for the other case.)
tecINSUF_RESERVE_OFFER 123 The transaction failed because the sending account does not have enough XRP to create a new Offer. (See: Reserves)
tecINSUFFICIENT_RESERVE 141 The transaction would increase the reserve requirement higher than the sending account's balance. SignerListSet, PaymentChannelCreate, PaymentChannelFund, and EscrowCreate can return this error code. See SignerLists and Reserves for more information.
tecINTERNAL 144 Unspecified internal error, with transaction cost applied. This error code should not normally be returned. If you can reproduce this error, please report an issue.
tecINVARIANT_FAILED 147 An invariant check failed when trying to execute this transaction. Requires the EnforceInvariants amendment. If you can reproduce this error, please report an issue.
tecNEED_MASTER_KEY 142 This transaction tried to cause changes that require the master key, such as disabling the master key or giving up the ability to freeze balances. New in: rippled 0.28.0
tecNO_ALTERNATIVE_KEY 130 The transaction tried to remove the only available method of authorizing transactions. This could be a SetRegularKey transaction to remove the regular key, a SignerListSet transaction to delete a SignerList, or an AccountSet transaction to disable the master key. (Prior to rippled 0.30.0, this was called tecMASTER_DISABLED.)
tecNO_AUTH 134 The transaction failed because it needs to add a balance on a trust line to an account with the lsfRequireAuth flag enabled, and that trust line has not been authorized. If the trust line does not exist at all, tecNO_LINE occurs instead.
tecNO_DST 124 The account on the receiving end of the transaction does not exist. This includes Payment and TrustSet transaction types. (It could be created if it received enough XRP.)
tecNO_DST_INSUF_XRP 125 The account on the receiving end of the transaction does not exist, and the transaction is not sending enough XRP to create it.
tecNO_ENTRY 140 Reserved for future use.
tecNO_ISSUER 133 The account specified in the issuer field of a currency amount does not exist.
tecNO_LINE 135 The TakerPays field of the OfferCreate transaction specifies an asset whose issuer has lsfRequireAuth enabled, and the account making the offer does not have a trust line for that asset. (Normally, making an offer implicitly creates a trust line if necessary, but in this case it does not bother because you cannot hold the asset without authorization.) If the trust line exists, but is not authorized, tecNO_AUTH occurs instead.
tecNO_LINE_INSUF_RESERVE 126 The transaction failed because the sending account does not have enough XRP to create a new trust line. (See: Reserves) This error occurs when the counterparty does not have a trust line to this account for the same currency. (See tecINSUF_RESERVE_LINE for the other case.)
tecNO_LINE_REDUNDANT 127 The transaction failed because it tried to set a trust line to its default state, but the trust line did not exist.
tecNO_PERMISSION 139 The sender does not have permission to do this operation. For example, the EscrowFinish transaction tried to release a held payment before its FinishAfter time, or someone tried to use PaymentChannelFund on a channel the sender does not own.
tecNO_REGULAR_KEY 131 The AccountSet transaction tried to disable the master key, but the account does not have another way to authorize transactions. If multi-signing is enabled, this code is deprecated and tecNO_ALTERNATIVE_KEY is used instead.
tecNO_TARGET 138 The transaction referenced an Escrow or PayChannel ledger object that doesn't exist, either because it never existed or it has already been deleted. (For example, another EscrowFinish transaction has already executed the held payment.) Alternatively, the destination account has asfDisallowXRP set so it cannot be the destination of this PaymentChannelCreate or EscrowCreate transaction.
tecOVERSIZE 145 This transaction could not be processed, because the server created an excessively large amount of metadata when it tried to apply the transaction. New in: rippled 0.29.0-hf1
tecOWNERS 132 The transaction requires that account sending it has a nonzero "owners count", so the transaction cannot succeed. For example, an account cannot enable the lsfRequireAuth flag if it has any trust lines or available offers.
tecPATH_DRY 128 The transaction failed because the provided paths did not have enough liquidity to send anything at all. This could mean that the source and destination accounts are not linked by trust lines.
tecPATH_PARTIAL 101 The transaction failed because the provided paths did not have enough liquidity to send the full amount.
tecUNFUNDED 129 The transaction failed because the account does not hold enough XRP to pay the amount in the transaction and satisfy the additional reserve necessary to execute this transaction. (See: Reserves)
tecUNFUNDED_ADD 102 DEPRECATED.
tecUNFUNDED_PAYMENT 104 The transaction failed because the sending account is trying to send more XRP than it holds, not counting the reserve. (See: Reserves)
tecUNFUNDED_OFFER 103 The OfferCreate transaction failed because the account creating the offer does not have any of the TakerGets currency.